Some of the potential areas of research in developed countries are Biomedical Science, Nano Science, Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Veterinary Science, Dairy Science, Conservation Science, Environmental Engineering and Climatology.
India being the largest milk producing country in the world, Dairy Science has better prospects in the country. Government of India has provided a budget allocation of Rs. 25000 Crores for Dairying in the forthcoming 12th Plan period. Dairy science and Technology is one of the agriculture related courses having immense research and career potential in India and abroad.
Graduate programmes in Dairy Science include BSc in Dairy science, Dairy Science and Technology and BTech in Dairy Engineering. Those who have completed graduate programmes will be absorbed in private sector or public sector dairy plants, food processing units, Dairy Science colleges, Banks, Retail management centers, etc.
Nestle, Amul, walls, National dairy development Board, etc are some of the leading firms in the country' dairy sector associated with value addition of milk. Dairy graduates can work as dairy extension officer in dairy department of the state. Milk marketing federations in the country need dairy experts in the areas of dairy engineering and quality control. Dairy science graduates can do post graduate programmes in dairy cattle production, dairy microbiology, dairy chemistry, dairy farm management, etc. Moreover they can work as consultants in the leading dairy farms and dairy plants.
Veterinary graduates can specialize in dairy science and technology so that they can associate with the veterinary services, procurement and marketing of milk and milk products. As a sequel to globalization there is immense potential for export of milk and milk products. But strict quality control measures should be adhered to. In order to maintain quality of the products, leading dairy product firms and dairy plants will employ dairy microbiologists. High tech dairies are coming up in the country and they are in need of qualified dairy technologists. Fully computerized Chitale dairy farm of Pune is an example.
Dairy experts have got immense overseas career potential both in Middle East and developed countries. Many leading dairy plants of UAE require qualified dairy technologists. Globally there is enough market potential for milk chocolates and dairy products. Dairy science graduates can do post graduation and research from USA, UK and Canada. Dairy technology is the best course in New Zealand, Switzerland and Denmark.
Along with Agricultural and Veterinary graduates, Dairy Science and Technology graduates can join for the four semester postgraduate programmes in Agri Business and supply chain management. Dairy science and technology graduates can do postgraduation and research from abroad. USA, UK and Canada are the best destinations for higher education and research. Apart from these countries, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Switzerland, Singapore and Malaysia has started recruiting students from the country.
Academic excellence, global edge in faculty and students, better facilities, resources and faculty, variety of options, flexible curricula, cutting edge technology, hands on training, better support services, financial assistance, challenging research opportunities and adaptation to different social environment are some of the major advantages. Good academic merit, individual capabilities including analytical skills, suitability to course and college and proficiency in English language are required for overseas education.
Rapidly growing human population place extraordinary pressures on ecosystems like large-scale environmental destruction, habitat conservation, habitat fragmentation and pollution. This leads to emergence of conservation biology, an assemblage of scientific disciplines that are focused on sustaining biodiversity through co-operative synthesis of ideas, information and approaches. Biodiversity is the key in maintaining life. Conservation biology is the emerging branch of biology having immense research and career potential in the world. Recently conservation of flora and fauna has been picking up momentum in the country.
Developed countries are giving more importance to research on Conservation biology. There is immense potential for biology students to do conservation research abroad. Postgraduates in Zoology and Botany can do MS and PhD from USA and UK. They can start preparing for overseas education during their postgraduate study period itself. Students are required to complete TOEFL and GRE for getting admission in American universities. They can also join for one year MS programme in UK after completing IELTS with a score of minimum 6.5. 'Extinction is forever. But for endangered, we can do some thing' is the motto of some of the American universities having conservation research projects.
The concept of genome resource banks is not a new concept. Large scale organized repositories of germplasm are more common for plants than for animals, since it is easier to store plant than animal germ plasm. Livestock sector has been benefited from large-scale sperm and embryo cryo preservation for the purpose of improving meat and milk production. Moreover a few programmmes bank biomaterials from animal models used in biomedical research to protect the long-term availability of standard genotypes of mice, rats, hamsters, rabbits, cats and dogs ensuring that researchers are working with uniform animal models which will give repeatable results.
Transgenic technology i.e., the ability to incorporate novel genes in to injected embryos has also resulted in production of thousands of new animal models in the world. Although this technology has hastened research opportunities, the byproduct is a proliferation of animal colonies that require expensive housing and care. The usefulness of banked germ plasm and embryos from humans, livestock and laboratory animals depends on assisted reproduction procedures like artificial insemination, embryo transfer and invitro fertilization. These procedures are sometimes enhanced by other techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in which an individual sperm cell is microinjected into an oocyte to create an embryo.
Graduate programmes related to International Tourism are designed for international tourism industry executives, Government officials and those who are interested in tourism and related sectors. Students can specialize in the issues arising from contemporary tourism around the world by taking an innovative, analytical and critical perspective on tourism and its relationship with the physical, cultural, economic and technological environments.
This specialist programme will provide an indepth understanding of international tourism themes and issues. It will explain how international tourism can be marketed and managed and how information technology can be effectively utilized in the tourism sector.
MS in International Tourism will provide a clear perspective of career opportunities of the travel and tourism industry and will have the capability to become a travel industry executive or a public sector tourism manager in India or abroad. Programme aimed at creating managers within the tourism sector will help to develop a strategic perspective while enhancing their management skills. Moreover this will provide a wide range of challenging, innovative and flexible learning, strategies that seek to develop the important leadership aspects of service managers.
Cryobiology studies the effects of low temperature and freezing of cells, tissues and organisms. These effects have great importance in many areas of biology including plant and animal science, entomology, microbiology, medical sciences, veterinary medicine and food science. This course will provide a sound theoretical and practical education and training in cryobiology. Moreover it will be beneficial to students who are interested to do research in related disciplines. The course curriculum includes theoretical aspects of cryobiology, cryopreservation and conservation, including practical and research methodologies, biomedical applications and conservation of biodiversity.
In Canada, UK and USA, Cryobiology Students will have access to excellent laboratory, comprehensive learning resources and opportunities to study laboratory-based projects at other organizations. It will help them to develop awareness on ethics and safety issues pertaining to cryobiology, its applications in biomedicine and the principles of quality assurance. Moreover students will develop an ability to evaluate the roles, benefits and limitations of cryo-banked materials, potential for genetic resource banks and gain an appreciation of the importance of cryopreservation in assisted reproduction.
On successful completion of MSc Cryobiology (Cryopreservation and Conservation), students will be equipped to undertake work in areas such as tissue and organ transplants, veterinary science, agriculture and aquaculture, assisted reproduction, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and the conservation of endangered species.
In UK, MSc Social Work course is an emerging programme for professional social work practice. It has been developed in conjunction with a range of statutory and voluntary partner agencies to reflect the changing needs of social work as a profession.
Combining practical experience and academic study, the course is designed for students who already have a degree in a social science discipline and allows them to undertake a postgraduate qualification, which reflects and recognizes their previous experience.
The course aims to develop valuable experience in the rapidly changing and challenging field of social work from practice placements in a variety of social care settings. For more details on social work courses in UK, visit : www.gscc.org.uk or contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Successful completion of the MSc Social Work will enable to pursue a career in social work in a range of statutory, voluntary and private sector organizations.
Real estate courses
Real estate business has acquired the status of one of the most profitable ventures in the country. Economists suggest that real estate finance, investment and appraisal are some of the emerging areas. In the Globalised era even during recession there is enough job potential for courses related to real estate in the country and abroad.
Recently many universities in UK are offering real estate courses. They offer Postgraduate programmes in Corporate Real Estate & Facilities Management, Real Estate Investment & Finance and Real Estate Appraisal. These courses are of 24 months duration with an option to complete the course within a period of 72 months. All the modules within the above modular masters programmes are available on a continuing professional development basis. Students are required to attend the class for a short duration, i.e., up to one semester and the rest of the course period can be completed on a continuing professional development basis through Internet. Candidates who have completed four-year degree programme or postgraduates can apply for the real estate courses.
MSc Corporate Real Estate and Facilities Management course is aimed at professionals employed in real estate market. This will help the student to acquire skills and knowledge necessary to manage complex corporate real estate portfolios in the emerging business context. MSc Real Estate Investment and Finance can be used both as an entry in to the expanding area of real estate finance and investment. MSc Real Estate Appraisal is aimed at developing successful career in commercial real estate sector. The programme focuses on economics, ethics, law and environment pertaining to real estate globally.
One of the pioneering universities in UK, University of Reading is offering postgraduate programmes in Real Estate Management. Since the course duration at Reading is of short period, students can complete the programme at a lesser expense. Those who require financial support during their stay at Reading can do 20 hours' part time job per week. For more details visit: www.reading.ac.uk/rep
Sports and Biomedical Science
Sports, Exercise and Biomedical Sciences have applications in a wide range of health and performance related disciplines. This course is useful for students, non-standard entrants and fitness professionals and sports coaches, which cover various aspects of biological and biomedical sciences. In each of these areas, courses are offered at postgraduate level, including MS, MPhil and PhD.
Digital Art and Technology
MA / MSc / MRes Digital Art and Technology (formerly Digital Art and Technology) is a hybrid arts/science programme delivered in online/offline spaces. It offers a critical engagement with emerging practices in arts and technology.
Digital Art and Technology is designed as a full-time or part-time, online/offline programme which provides maximum flexibility for participants to manage their studies in a way that suits their creative and professional needs.
Information Systems Security
Security is a vital issue in today’s information systems environment. This programme provides a comprehensive understanding of the threats and solutions for modern organisations.
Although it is tempting to think of computer security in terms of technology-based countermeasures, the protection of business assets cannot be achieved using technical measures alone.
Focus is given to both theoretical and practical aspects of information systems security (spanning issues from network security and attacks, through to physical and policy-related measures), in order to produce graduates with current knowledge and desirable skills, as well as the means to adapt within this dynamic area.
Engineering: Civil, Structural & Environmental
Research activity in Civil and Structural Engineering and in Environmental Building is focused on four themes: Coastal Engineering; Sustainable Building; Structural Engineering; and Engineering Management. Coastal Engineering Research is at the forefront of developments in the study of flood risk, field and laboratory measurements of wave impact loading and beach morphology, and in theoretical development and numerical modeling.
India ranks third in telecommunication sector in the world. By 2015, this sector will exhibit spectacular growth and create immense job opportunities in India. This will be reflected in the information technology sector also. Taking into account the emerging technologies like 3G, 4G & 5G and opportunities in the telecom sector, Electronics, Electronics and Communication, Electrical and Electronics and Information Technology will have more potential during the coming years.
Nanotechnology, Mechatronics and Bioinformatics are emerging as the promising technological areas within the country and abroad. BTech graduates can join for MS in Mechatronics or Nanotechnology abroad which are having more research and career prospects. Biomedical science, Bioinformatics, Electronics & Communication, Mechanical Engineering, Dairy Technology, Environmental Engineering, Maritime Engineering and Fashion Technology are emerging as the major placement oriented courses. In United States, Biomedical Engineering is having more career potential as more than 50 percent vacancies of biomedical engineers exist in the country. Civil, Architecture and Chemical engineering graduates can pursue post graduation abroad for better placements. By 2015, eco-friendly technologies will acquire momentum in the country. As part of popularizing green technologies, chemical engineering may emerge as one of the potential sectors, which can assist in developing eco-friendly pollution control measures.
Mechatronics is emerging as one of the integrated new generation courses having enough career potential within the country and abroad. This is a combination of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical & Electronics, Computer Engineering, Systems Engineering and Control Engineering. It is also called Robotic science. Mechatronics has wide applications in Robotics, Nanotechnology, Automation, Aircraft Engineering, Biomedical Systems and computer-aided design. Biomechatronics is a branch of Mechatronics having Electronics, Mechatronics and Biology as the different fields of study. Taking in to account the increasing opportunities in the telecom sector, Nanotechnology and Mechatronics is emerging as the promising technological areas.
Even though mechatronics courses have got wide popularity in Canada, United States and UK, in India it is in the primitive stage. All industrial employers are trying to reduce the number of employees. Their objective is to increase production, productivity and profitability. They prefer mechatronics engineers to reduce one-third work force of engineering staff. Number of institutions offering mechatronics course is comparatively less in India. There are only very few institutions offering BTech and MTech Mechatronics programmes.
Being the four-year graduate programme, engineering students can directly apply for postgraduate programmes in Mechatronics abroad. MS Mechatronics is the most established and successful specialist programme in UK, which will substantially enhance career prospects of students. It is of one-year duration under full-time programme. In United States, MS Mechatronics course is of two years duration.
Emerging areas of Engineering
• Environmental Engineering
Environmental Engineering is the study of ways to protect the environment. This will make a real difference in the survival of the planet by finding ways of cleaning oceans, rivers and drinking water, developing air pollution equipment, designing more effective recycling systems or discovering safe ways to dispose of toxic waste.
• Geological and geophysical Engineering
This field uses engineering principles to seek and develop deposits of natural resources and design foundations for buildings, bridges and other structures.
• Aerospace Engineering
Aerospace engineers design, analyse, model, stimulate and test aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, missiles and rockets.
• Agricultural Engineering
Agricultural engineers use knowledge of engineering technology and science to agriculture and the efficient use of biological resources.
Bio engineers study living systems and safety of food systems.
• Ceramic and Material Engineering
They use products made possible by the inventions and designs of engineers working with ceramics and other materials.
Chemical engineers discover and manufacture better plastics, paints, fuels, fibres, medicines, fertilizers, semiconductors, paper and other types of chemicals.
• Civil Engineering
Civil engineers oversee the construction of buildings and infrastructure that makes up the world, highways, railways, bridges, water reservoirs, etc.
• Computer Engineering
It is the design, construction, implementation and maintenance of computers and computer controlled equipments for the benefit of mankind.
• Electrical Engineering
It helps in developing components for the most essential things in the world. Electrical engineers can work on robotics, computer networks, wireless communications or medical imaging.
• Industrial Engineering
Industrial engineers use the most effective ways to use people, machine, materials, energy and information to make a product or provide a service.
• Manufacturing Engineering
Manufacturing engineers direct and co-ordinate the processes for making things.
• Mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineers work in every area of technology, from aerospace and automotive to computers and biotechnology.
• Nuclear engineering
Nuclear engineers harness the power of atom to benefit mankind.
• Petroleum Engineering
They study the earth to find oil and gas reservoirs.
Tourism & Hospitality
The tourism and hospitality sectors form one of the dominant industries of the 21st century. They provide more than 10% of world's total employment. Recently, suitable programmes which help to prepare for management positions within tourism and hospitality are available. It is aimed at future managers within the tourism and hospitality sectors who wish to develop a strategic perspective while enhancing their management skills.
A programme aimed at engineers or physical scientists intending to work in coastal engineering within government agencies, local authorities and engineering consultancies.
Coastal engineering deals with the defence, protection and management of the world’s coastlines for the social and economic benefit of the communities who own them. The master’s programme in coastal engineering is aimed at both graduate scientists and engineers seeking employment or career progression within organisations that work in this field.
Curriculum includes wave theory, coastal processes and modern techniques in coastal data collection and analysis including GIS and remote sensing, numerical modeling techniques, issues of environmental law and the application of current coastal defence guidelines.
Agriculture has profound influence on the health and well-being of man and the environment, and it must be managed through the application of appropriate scientific principles. Consumer sensitivities to the way in which food is produced, and public concerns about the impact of farming methods on the environment are some of the important research themes.
These themes are mapped in to research programmes including animal nutrition, plant stress tolerance, nutrient and soil management, composting, crop protection, invertebrate ecology and the health and welfare of livestock.
Applied Fish Biology
The decline in global fish stocks, the exploitation of fish for livestock feeds and the endangering of species through environmental changes, pollutants and habitat destruction are the major issues of national and international concern.
Whilst natural levels of fish stock decline, demand for seafood continues to grow dramatically. As a result, the requirement for the production of cultured fish is predicted to rise sharply in the 21st century. Consequently, demand for scientists with knowledge in this area will increase. Central to this industry is the need to develop artificial diets to maximise production and efficiency. The diagnosis and treatment of common fish diseases and health promotion of reared fish is also important.
Another growing global industry is the trade of ornamental fish and aquatics. These raise issues of breeding and husbandry, aquarium management and the impact of new technology. Fish toxicology is also an important aspect of the programme.
Theoretical and Computational Neuroscience
These multi-disciplinary programmes provide a comprehensive knowledge of theoretical principles and concepts of brain functioning; mathematical and computational modeling of brain's neural activity and cognitive function; and statistical techniques of neuroscience data analysis.
Neuroscience is one of the most intensively developing and important sciences of the 21st century. Huge progress has been made in experimental approaches and techniques. The imaging and recording of brain's activity provide extensive experimental data about different aspects of the functioning of brain. Theoretical neuroscience provides the solid basis necessary to understand the data and shed fresh light on the basic mechanisms underpinning brain function at the cellular, circuit and systems levels.
MSc in Bioinformatics
The exciting world of bioinformatics is a fast growing, popular and challenging arena, offering lucrative job opportunities both in biology and medicine related fields and in the information technology sector. Highly qualified and professional people are in high demand in this field.This leading edge, internationally recognized course is designed to provide a bridge for those talented students with background in information technology and biology to cross over their existing disciplines and come into this exciting new field.
Through exposure to bioinformatics, principles of sequence and genome analysis and the development of bioinformatics software, databases and graphics, students can improve their understanding of biology, computing and their combination in bioinformatics. Students can also broaden their expertise in bioinformatics, with a view to develop a leading role in bioinformatics related fields in the future.
Sustainable Environment Management
The sustainable management of natural resources is one of the most challenging issues facing the modern world. These programmes develop a thorough grounding in both the theoretical and practical dimensions of environmental assessment, audit and policymaking and lead to careers with environmental consultancies and government agencies.
Criminology and Criminal Justice Studies
MSc in Criminology and Criminal Justice Studies is a multi-disciplinary programme which draws on criminological and generic social science theory, policy and research to prepare students to be critical and reflective practitioners and researchers in the criminal justice field.
Sustainable development of rural areas is a key issue across the world. The programme aims to develop an understanding of rural development as a process which integrates activities relating to the economy, environment, society and culture in balancing the needs of people and planet.
Ecology and Epidemiology
Ecology and Epidemiology are advanced trans-disciplinary research areas and teaching across biology, mathematics and statistics. It includes Human and Animal Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Marine Ecology and Fisheries, Coastal Zone Management and Development, Conservation, Biomathematics and Dynamical Systems Modelling and Remote Sensing.
There are four core research areas in Molecular Medicine: Molecular Endocrinology, Molecular Neuroscience, Oncology and Cardiovascular / Metabolism.
Neuroscience focuses how specific components of the nervous system such as ion channels, synapses and transmitter receptors contribute to the properties of neurons and the operation and function of the nervous system. Invertebrate, amphibian and mammalian models of neural function are used: Drosophila, to study the genetic determinants of neural properties; the Xenopus embryo, to study the operation of neural circuits in intact nervous system; and mammalian brain slices, to study the properties of synapses and neurons in the neonatal and adult brain. Understanding how the expression of ion channels and the properties of neurons and synapses are regulated throughout development forms an important unifying theme.
Department of Economics includes a number of overlapping and interlocking groups, organized around research workshops in Developmental Studies, Public Economics, Economic Theory, Econometrics, Development Economics, Economic History, Industrial Economics, Labour Economics and Macroeconomics. The Public Economics group in particular is fast developing. In Macroeconomics, one focus of interest is international financial crisis and international monetary arrangements. Dynamic general equilibrium models, especially with market imperfections, are used in the study of fluctuations and in the design of policy. Specialized areas include computable general equilibrium, global trade patterns and environmental issues.
Research in industrial economics is both theoretical and empirical conducted at both the macro and the micro level. Important issues of public policy arise in several areas, such as industrial strategy, regulatory policy, the economic analysis of trade unions and the economics of technology policy.
MSc Palliative Care
Recently, Palliative Care has been getting more attention in the health care system. Postgraduate programme in palliative care through its innovative work-based approach enhances the expertise level ofpractitioners who hold a degree but wish to gain specialist palliative care skills. Through this programme students will develop a valid vision on palliative care and attitudes and learn to appreciate the life pattern of people experiencing life-threatening illness and how best to respond from within a holistic framework. Moreover the student will gain knowledge on approaches to care and appreciate the social context of death within contemporary society and its impact on care across diverse cultural boundaries.
Globally palliative care has become a significant focus area for development within multiple healthcare settings like hospitals, nursing homes and community care centers. So there is immense career potential for experienced practitioners or graduates seeking basic palliative care skills.
MSc Public Health
‘Prevention is better than cure’, so the public health system acquires more importance. It can control epidemics and can act as a pre-requisite for the health care system. Courses on public health are aimed at medically and non-medically qualified people. This includes those in primary or secondary care, nursing and professions related to medicine, health promotion, healthcare research, health management, veterinary public health, zoonotic diseases, emerging diseases like swine flu, avian influenza. The course also aims at candidates wishing to develop a career in public health. Students will benefit from an innovative work-based approach focusing on practical and critical public health skills and opportunities for research. Public health has become an increasingly significant focus of Government plans, initiating developments at both local and national levels within multiple healthcare settings. On successful completion of the MSc Public Health, students will be equipped with specialist skills and attitudes needed to pursue career in this area.
Microbiology involves the study of diverse range of microbial systems with a view to understand how such organisms interact with and respond to their environment. Organisms that are essential for major biochemical processes affecting the climate, such as phytoplankton and bacterial plankton in the marine environment, is one of the areas of interest. Factors that permit organisms to grow on specific substrates or to cause disease under particular environmental conditions are studied using a variety of biochemical, molecular, biological and genetic techniques.
Global demand for air passengers is projected to grow by 5 percent per annum for the next 20 years. Moreover cargo sector will grow by 6 percent per year. This will create new opportunities in the aviation and aerospace sector in the world. According to International Air transport Association, Intra Asia Pacific air travel is becoming the world’s largest Aviation market. In order to manage this dramatic growth anticipated for the air transport sector, tomorrow’s managers must know how to operate complex and growing aviation systems efficiently and effectively by applying the best managerial and leadership practices. The challenge is to meet the environmental and economic sustainability demands of the society to meet the needs of an increasingly interconnected world.
As the world continues to offer more opportunities for the public to take the skies, a highly skilled professional workforce is required to meet the needs of individual travelers. Across the world, aviation and aeronautical universities have created a range of educational programmes at the undergraduate and graduate level to create skilled professionals. Various programmes like weather forecasting, air traffic management, aircraft engineering and design, aircraft and engine maintenance, safety and security systems,etc.help the students for getting a better career in aviation sector.
- Dr.T P Sethumadhavan